In the ZeroE series primary pyrolysis/gasification takes place on a fixed rotating grate fuel bed located in the primary chamber and final combustion of the gases takes place in the patented secondary chamber. The after-burner meets Ontario Ministry of the Environment’s requirements for commercial biomass furnaces utilizing any biomass as fuel including silica-containing straw, wetland grasses, reeds and wood waste.
Both chambers are refractory lined and able to withstand temperatures up to 3,000ºF. Post-combustion gases are maintained at 1,000ºC for more than 1 second at plus 6% O2 in the exhaust gas stream making the system eligible for MSW and bio-hazards incineration.
We provide a unique patented 2-stage clean fire technology designed to separate the silica inherent in post-harvest straw and hog fuel (tree bark). Bark is a good raw material for fuel since it has a higher calorific value than white wood. However, it has generally higher chlorine and sulphur content which both tends to cause harmful emissions and also generate corrosion in the hot regions of the furnace and in the flue gas channel when combusted in single-stage systems. However, our 2-stage systems have been developed to overcome these impediments.
Bark also has considerably higher ash content which generates clinker in the furnace and thereby tends to cause more maintenance. The increased ash content also generates more particulate emissions. Again the extended dwell time in our afterburner overcomes these impediments.
The patented silica trap captures the silica inherent in straw, reed-based and bark biomass.
With climate change top of mind, our systems are the ZERO carbon emissions option. With ORC integration, green Combined Heat & Power (CHP) is here!
Pictures on the right show 1. A ZeroE 3 million BTU thermal conversion system 2. The 2000º flame on the inside of the after-burner 3. The inside of a bale shredder and 4. The 3 million BTU boiler cleanouts. Picture below is the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) driven by hot water from the Zero
The ZeroC is a wood chip and pellet-burning series that has a Cast iron chain grate with over-under and tertiary air injection to provide complete combustion. It is less expensive and suitable for clients that do not need the 2-stage combustion offered by the ZeroE. Available in sizes ranging from 200,000 BTU in air-heat or hydronic-heat models.
ZeroT is a wood chip top-feed over-fire rotary-grate vertical Tower hydronic water heater/boiler. We have four 3,500,000 BTU units available for quick delivery at very competitive pricing. Designed to heat a large shop or greenhouse or up to 70 homes
ZeroP Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) electric Power generators are the zeroCO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) eliminators! When paired with our biomass heat conversion systems, they generate power at rates well below the market. In some jurisdictions, they qualify for SIGNIFICANT conversion grants, sometimes equal to the equipment’s capital cost!
The power generated by our ORC improves energy efficiency with no fuel costs and no additional emissions. Waste heat sources are widely available in almost any market and there are many easily identified sources including boilers, engine exhaust, heat stacks and flares burning landfill or digester gases.
Simply stated every unit of energy wasted is an equal unit of wasted cash. The more efficient the conversion process of waste heat to electricity the more cash is saved. Often, an upgrade using an ORC has a payback period of fewer than 3 years.
ZeroF fuel feeding systems are a requirement for the successful implementation of any wood chip heating system and available in 3 types depending on need.
Fuel Supply Systems
ZeroCO2 biomass furnace systems can be fully equipped with containerized “walking floor-type” delta wedge adjoining fuel storage feed systems, allowing a variety of bulk biomass products to be used as fuel.
Additionally, we have stationary hydraulically operated walking floors which load biomass fuel into a u-trough auger. Augers move biomass into the boiler as needed.
Zrotary bin feeder suitable for bins 8’x8’
Zwalking-floor feeder from 5’ x 12’ to 8’x54’ trailers and containers
Zrake is under development. Continuous wood chip rake in sizes ranging from 8’x8’x20-54’
Zshredder for continuous feeding of 16 to 32 – 6’ diameter or square bales designed for the ZeroE heating systems
ZeroCO2 is a representative of solar, providing off-grid and on-grid energy solutions for reliable and cost-effective power. Offering cost-effective solar energy technologies for the benefit of our customers and the environment is another way we are working towards a greener world for the future. Products and services available include solar modules, inverters, controlling & monitoring systems, mounting systems and carports.
Zcompost composting equipment available in a range of sizes from 4’ dia x 6’ – 42’ in length used to produce compost efficiently from farm mortalities, manure, and restaurant waste.
ZerCO2 provides industry-leading solutions to mortality management in the livestock production industry and the cannabis industry is committed to the growth and long-term success of operations. Producers are faced to deal with mortality management, as loss of animal production is an unfortunate reality. Appropriate measures must be taken in order to prevent the spread of disease, odour and pest problems, as well as contamination of ground and water. Since 2003 we have been involved in the research and development of mortality management in livestock production operations. Our research leads to the successful development and implementation of the ZCompost Digester. The ZCompost Digester is a large in-vessel compost digestion system that reduces bio-security risks. Mortalities are processed into compost in approximately 14 days, eliminating all pathogens and other disease-causing organisms.
We strive to ensure that our customers get the correct solutions for their specific needs. Our team makes choosing the right products simple, which provides confidence in a long service life at an affordable price. In addition, we’re always happy to assist with custom turn-key solutions.
Installation and Service
Our team goes the extra mile to assist in choosing the right system for our clients needs. We take pride in providing continuous ongoing assistance in the selection of primary and auxiliary equipment, required for optimal functioning and operation. Our experienced installation team is happy to assist in custom turn-key projects and services required after installation.
One of the barriers to biomass heating solutions is fuel supply. Where do you get biomass fuel? How labor intensive is it to source and acquire this fuel supply? ZeroCO2 is here to help.
Biomass fuels are not a rare commodity. If they were, biomass would not be considered a renewable energy source. Every town and city around the world produces biomass fuels. For example, the city of Winnipeg, MB (avg population of 750,000) produces an average of 250 tons of wood waste per day (according to a study in 2015) and this is from a city that is small in comparison to most in North America. This wood waste consists of trees, used lumber and other wood products that can be converted into wood chips and subsequently into biomass fuel.
Cities around the world are converting their wood waste into wood chips. There are many companies across North America that supply and deliver wood chips for biomass fuel purposes and have been doing so for years. ZeroCO2 will not only provide you with our Biomass Furnace system but we can also help connect you with a fuel supply source to ensure reliable and hassle-free supply.
Specifications and Details
ZeroE heating system is an updraft, atmospheric pressure close-coupled 2-stage pyrolysis/gasification system.
ZeroE systems are available in different sizes:
- ZeroE1000 is a one million btu/hr compact economical system designed to heat a small greenhouse or up to 20 homes
- ZeroE3000 is a three million btu/hr thermal conversion system designed to heat a 20,000 sq ft greenhouse or up to 60 homes
- ZeroE6000 is a six million btu/hr thermal conversion system designed to heat a VERY large greenhouse or up to 120 homes
ZeroC systems are designed to burn wood biomass including wood chips and pellets.
- ZeroC200 click to see the video of our 200,000 btu/hr compact chain-grate stoker system designed to heat a shop or small greenhouse or up to 4 homes
- ZeroC500 coming soon! 500,000 btu/hr compact chain-grate system designed to heat a shop or greenhouse or up to 10 homes
- ZeroC1000 coming soon! 1,000,000 btu/hr compact chain-grate system designed to heat a shop or greenhouse or up to 20 homes
ZeroE Series Main System Components
- Zshredder Bale magazine (baled straw conveying system to automatically support gasifier with fuel)
- Straw disintegration component (straw shredder and shredded fuel conveyor system)
- Primary combustion chamber (includes the ash removal system, grate system and air distribution system)
- Secondary combustion chamber (includes the silicone/potassium removal tray)
- Hot water heat exchanger (includes automatic cleaning system and clean-out removal tray)
- Exhaust system (the main blower controls airflow and exhausts clean vapour)
Main computerized control system (combines all necessary electrical devices to control each function with limited supervision)
Fuel Storage: Baled wheat straw can be stored outdoors or indoors. Indoor storage protects the fuel from precipitation (and often from freezing) and can eliminate varying moisture content and decay in the fuel supply.
Received fuel is moved onto the bale magazine by either a front-end loader or a specially designed automated crane system. The bale magazine can be designed to handle any amount of fuel desired. The magazine automatically feeds baled straw into the disintegration machine, as fuel is required for processing.
The fuel processing begins in the shredder where the straw is disintegrated into smaller, manageable particles. Interruptions or delays in reclaiming fuel can occur because of undesirable fuel properties (i.e. poor flow, compaction, frozen chunks, oversized material or contaminants), so fuel preparation is critical to the operation of the entire system.
From the shredder, the particulate fuel is moved by a conveyor or auger to the fuel injection system. The fuel injection system feeds the fuel into the primary combustion chamber utilizing a mechanical plunger or twin augers.
The back flow of combustion flames and gases through the fuel entry is controlled by an automated fire door.
Primary Combustion Chamber
The primary combustion chamber is an enclosed area where drying, pyrolysing and oxidizing occurs. The fixed rotating grate supports the fire bed and allows for underfire air to be blown up through the fuel. Effective oxygen supply and control is critical to ensure complete gasification without complete combustion.
Ash collects below the grate and is removed automatically by an auger. In general, ash from biofuel burning is not considered hazardous waste and can be placed in local landfills. However, most ash is an excellent soil additive and will be of interest to local gardeners and farmers. Proper ash management is critical, as the non-combustible inorganic (mineral) content of biomass can become significant, depending on the type of fuel utilized. Inherent ash is generally low in clean wood (0.5%), higher in bark (3.5%) and significant in annual crops such as straw (6.2%), but usually consistent within a fuel type. Ash content is usually expressed on a dry basis, i.e. the weight of ash as a percentage of the total moisture-free fuel weight.
Secondary Combustion Chamber
The hot exhaust gases exit at the top of the primary combustion chamber and pass through a refractory duct into the secondary combustion chamber. Oxygen is added to the refractory duct. As the gases flow from the primary to the secondary chambers, the injection of oxygen ignites the gases, allowing gas combustion to take place in the secondary chamber. The quantity of heat released during the bio-fuel gas combustion is dramatically increased to approximately 2,500 degrees Fahrenheit. Extremely high temperatures are maintained in the combustion chambers by lining the chambers with refractory, which radiates and reflects heat back into the fuel layer. The refractory also protects the walls and base of the chambers from the high temperatures in the combustion zone.
Where agricultural-based straw is the primary bio-fuel, silica and potassium debris settles in the removable tray at the bottom of the secondary combustion chamber. This requires a periodic manual cleanout.
The extremely hot gases from the secondary chamber flow to the heat exchanger which is a fire-tube boiler. A hydronic system delivers this heat to desired locations and supplies precise heat for any public, commercial, residential or agricultural building. Fly ash can be moved by combustion gas flow and can deposit on the heat exchange surfaces in the boiler. This ash is removed regularly to maintain good heat transfer performance. Tube cleaners are in place to automatically clean the boiler tubes and collect the fly ash in the particulate collection system.
An induced-draft exhaust system completes the combustion process. The induced-draft system uses a large blower located in front of the stack which sucks the exhaust gases out of the boiler and forces them up the stack. The draft of this fan is regulated in relation to the combustion air to maintain a very slight negative pressure in the combustion chambers so that gas flow is continuous and that no combustion gas leaks occur.
Instrumentation and Automation Control is important for efficient operation in response to energy demand and safety. The complete feed and gasification process requires a complex control system using computers and micro-processors to match heat delivery with demand. A key task of the control system is determining the rate at which fuel and air are fed to the primary combustion chamber to ensure gasification, and the rate at which air is fed into the secondary chamber of ensure efficient combustion. Control is achieved when fuel and air are automatically modulated simultaneously to maintain the correct ratio under high or low demand. Start-up and shutdown sequences are programmed, and alarms will sound in upset conditions. Remote monitoring is available.
- Electrical power (3 phase system preferred, single-phase possible)
- Air requirement (compressor 100-120 PSI, 7-10 CSF)
- Cold water source (50-70 PSI, 2-4 gallons/minute)
- Concrete floor and building structure (brick or metal)
- Shelter (or building structure) to cover the disintegration and conveyor system
- Ash bin (to contain ashes being removed from the gasifier primary chamber)
ZeroE Energy heating system requires little maintenance and management. Tasks such as ash disposal, general cleanup (usually in the fuel storage and handling area), checking heat exchanger water levels, checking the fuel delivery system for oversized material build-up, plus monitoring primary and secondary combustion chamber temperatures, along with stack temperature are done daily. The computer system will signal the operator in upset conditions or for out-of-range readings.
In addition, there are regular maintenance tasks that need to be carried out periodically. These include:
- replenish the depleted fuel supply
- lubricate mechanical components
- inspect and adjust chains, gearboxes, blowers, etc.
- remove silica from the secondary chamber
- remove debris from the heat exchange
- inspect refractory and repair as necessary
- test safety devices
Most of the routine maintenance can be carried out by the system operator or by the general on-site maintenance staff. It is recommended that the system be inspected by a ZeroE service technician annually.
System Life Expectancy
ZeroE systems can last indefinitely since the components will be replaced as they wear out or deteriorate. In the forest industry, wood combustion systems have been in operation for over 50 years. In practice, 15 to 20 years is used as a reasonable life expectancy for a biomass combustion system in life-cycle costing.
Dillon Consulting Limited was retained to conduct source testing on the gasifier exhaust stack to quantify combustion gas emissions. These tests were conducted on our 3 million btu/hr gasifier operating at the maximum system designed production rate of approximately 500 pounds (227 kg) of straw feedstock per hour.
The following gases were measured from the exhaust gas stream:
- Carbon Monoxide
- Sulphur Dioxide
- Oxides of Nitrogen
- Carbon Dioxide
The following table summarizes the results of the combustion gas concentrations in the gasifier exhaust stream.
Combustion Gas concentrations are the average concentrations from 3 separate test periods.
“The results of the dispersion model indicate that the emissions of all of the measured parameters from the TGE3000 Gasifier comply with the Ontario and Manitoba regulated Point of Impingement and Ambient Air Quality Criteria Concentrations. The POI concentrations for the remaining combustion gases do not exceed any of the regulated POI limits or AAQC. In general, the POI concentrations predicted by the dispersion modelling for all measured pollutants are at least one-half of the regulated levels with no pollution control devices.”
– Dillon Final Report, March 2003
The Free Fuel – Wood Chips
To get the same amount of heat contained in a tonne of wood chips, you’d have to buy over $300 of fuel oil or electrical power.
There is an abundance of wood waste in your community. More than the processors know what to do with!
Invite people to deliver their dry wood waste to your facility and charge them a $40 tipping fee. Pay the custom shredder $40 a tonne to shred it and you have FREE fuel to heat your facilities or to generate electrical power.
Post Harvest Waste
To get the same amount of heat contained in a 500 kg straw bale, you’d have to buy over $300 of fuel oil.
Our ZeroE biomass thermal conversion system is an atmospheric pressure 2-stage close-coupled heating system that features:
Low greenhouse gas emissions
Minimal operator intervention
Compared to any other fuel, straw is the cheapest and it is totally renewable
When a community invests in a district heating system and purchases straw from area farmers, the money stays in the community.
- Biomass Fuel is more cost-effective than fossil fuel.
- Biomass Fuel is a renewable resource.
- Biomass Fuel is CO2 neutral.
- Biomass Fuel efficiently transports and stores.
- Fuel heating systems comply with the air emissions standards of the Kyoto Protocol.
- Biomass Fuel heating appliances provide cost-effective residential, commercial, industrial and greenhouse space heating applications.
- Biomass Fuel is not subject to world price fluctuation as is a fossil fuel.
- Biomass Fuel creates 91% less greenhouse gas emissions than fossil fuels.
- BioHeat is the most economical, carbon-neutral heat resource available today
If you are spending $96,000 per year on propane to heat your facility, by switching to straw heat you would only spend $16,000 and save $80,000 per year!
|Your Annual Fuel Cost Comparisons||$/MM||$ /unit||unit||BTU / unit||Efficiency|
|$10,143||Flax straw||$1.87||$15.00||500 k||9,455,795||85%|
|$15,079||Wheat straw||$2.78||$20.00||500 k||8,456,710||85%|
|$30,157||Swamp Grass||$5.56||$40.00||500 kg||8,456,710||85%|
A valued by-product from our ZeroE Series of BioHeat systems
Along with bags of potting soil, mulch, and compost, you soon may see bags of biochar for sale at your local nursery.
To explain what biochar is, we need to return to the Amazon basin circa 450 a.d. Indigenous people didn’t practice slash-and-burn farming as they do now. They practised slash-and-char agriculture, roasting wood and leafy greens in “smothered” fires, in which lower temperatures and oxygen levels resulted in the production of charcoal instead of ash. The charcoal was buried in fields where crops were grown.
But then, with the arrival of Europeans and their diseases, the Amazon civilizations, some with cities of more than 100,000 people, collapsed. Slash-and-char agriculture was forgotten, as were the fields of buried charcoal. But they weren’t gone. In the 20th century, huge expanses of black soil were rediscovered, although at first, no one knew what they were. Then, in the 1990s, scientists determined that these soils were manmade. They were dubbed terra preta (“dark earth” in Portuguese). And they were extensive. Some estimates put the total acreage covered by the charcoal-enriched soil at twice the size of Great Britain.
Most amazingly, the soils extended up to 6 feet deep in many places. Scientists have theorized that terra preta soils are self-propagating and have grown in depth since they were first made. The charcoal, acting a lot like humans, had been colonized by myriad microbes, fungi, earthworms, and other creatures; these soil organisms produced carbon-based molecules that stuck to the charcoal, gradually increasing the soil’s carbon content. Carbon in decomposing plants, which would otherwise escape into the air as greenhouse gases, was sequestered by the biologically active charcoal in the soil. Scientists theorize that the charcoal was originally laid down in thin layers and that earthworms chewed through the layers and mixed them deeply into the soil.
That is just the beginning of the benefits of this strange soil. It appears that the carbon will be sequestered for a thousand—possibly thousands—of years, unable to contribute to global warming in the form of greenhouse gases. Green charcoal, or biochar made from agricultural residues or renewable biomass, appears to hold the most promise as a carbon sink. Every ton of this biochar in the soil is capable of capturing and holding at least 3 tons of carbon.
Biochar also stimulates mycorrhizal fungi—those fungal symbionts that live on plant roots, scour surrounding soil for hard-to-find phosphorus and deliver it back to their host plants. According to scientists studying the soils, microbial growth of all kinds is substantially improved. And so is the soil’s ability to hold nutrients until plants need them, then dole them out at the optimum rate for plant health. Crops have been shown to grow 45 per cent greater biomass on unfertilized terra preta soil versus poor soil fertilized with chemical fertilizers.
Research on biochar is underway at universities around the world, and agribusiness is beginning to show interest. While biochar could be manufactured by cutting down forests and fields, a more sensible approach would be to utilize the billions of tons of organic waste that now goes into landfills—a perfect raw material for biochar.
Composting Cannabis Waste
Save Green to Grow More Green
Canadian and U.S. regulations require cannabis farms to shred plant waste and mix it with an inert substance (i.e. cat litter, sand, plastic waste, sawdust) until deemed “unrecognizable and irrecoverable.” This requires mixed material to be purchased and immediately discarded, doubling materials and disposal costs. To avoid these costs, growers find composting systems to be a cost-effective option to meet Canadian regulations. The Zcompost not only eliminates disposal costs with the finished compost product recycling back into the growing operation. It reduces costs for soil amendments and fertilizers. These savings allow the grower to recover their initial investment in the equipment in less than a year.
Save Time Composting
Instead of worrying about proper cannabis waste disposal and seeking out a supplier for nutrient-rich soil, cannabis growers can remove and re-use product on-site. The Zcompost continuous flow design allows the cannabis grower to add new material every day. This automated mixing technology is a highly efficient model for composting compared to other methods. The Zcomposter creates a pathogen-free substrate by heating compost to temperatures of 55 °C (131 °F).
The process takes between 14-21 days to create a finished compost product. You can use the compost as a soil amendment right away!
The input auger shreds the marijuana plants.
Creating a Sustainable Product
Cannabis waste has put a huge burden on public landfills, In 2018, Washington State found that landfills accumulated 1.7 million pounds of plant waste since legalization in 2014. Marijuana growing operations have a responsibility to lessen their environmental impact. Composting is one-way growers can reduce, re-use, and recycle while creating a more sustainable product.
Composting waste is a no-brainer because it saves time and money while meeting regulations, and not ruining the planet.
ZeroCO2 helps cannabis growers of all sizes bring cost-effective composting into their operations. Reach out to us for more information!